Gifts for ShahSubject: Persian Miniature PaintingPaint Material: Opaque watercolorsBase Material: SilkSize: 13 in. X 10 in. Framed 15" x 11-1/4"Age: Modern Handmade ArtCountry of origin: Eastern Asia or Middle EastFramed in Brushed Chrome with Non-glare GlassA modern reproduction of an illustration of the court of the Shah. Beautifully detailed version of the ancient original ready to hang in an expensive heavy duty frame under non-glare glass. Painting was from the collection of a world traveler - probably c.1980's.More on the technical details of Moghul Miniature PaintingsPaper/Silk/Faux Ivory to paint on, water colors, mineral pigments, organic dyes such as indigo, semi-precious stones, gold color powder, gold leaf calledwark, brushes (round and flat with sizes ranging from 0‐12), squirrel hair brushes (for detailing), water-proof ply board, starch/ararote, potassium permanganate, charcoal powder, sequins, conch shell.Tools:Pencil, eraser, a copy of the picture being painted, tracing paper, wooden rod used for drawing straight lines, shell with smooth surface for burnishing, tray, shell plates and bowls for mixing colors, iron tool for drilling holes.Process:The paper has to be treated to prepare it for painting like rubbing it with a particular egg-shaped stone and sizing it with starch (rice water). The paintings are also made on handmade paper and are called ‘basli’. 3‐4 layers of handmade paper are stuck together using starch. The surface is then coated with ‘khadia’, a paste to stiffen it. When the paper (or other medium) is ready the artist begins to work on the painting. The borders are first marked out with a pencil. The artist sketches the picture on the canvas. These days it is mainly the earlier works that are being reproduced. Although new themes based on the original art style is also being produced.The artist thus sketches his drawing referring to an earlier work. Next stage involves coloring the painting. The desired base colors of the motifs are filled in first such as the basic colors of clothes, walls, trees, etc. The faces, arms, and feet of the figures are left untouched. The artist then works on the outlines. Next he starts filling in the details such as leaves and flowers on the trees, clouds in the sky, details of clothes, details on background walls, etc. Shading work on motifs is done with squirrel-hair brush whose fineness is suitable for the most intricate work.The face, arm and feet of the figures in the painting are done at the final stages. According to the artist the figures depicted attract the maximum attention of the viewer and flaws in their depiction are very apparent to the viewer. The artist therefore spends maximum time on detailing them with the face being the most important. The face is painted last. The outline of the face including forehead, nose, lips, chin, and neck is painted in one single brush stroke when the face is sideways. The face is not painted with a base color. Instead it is lent color only through shading. Remarkable detailing captures the side locks, eyebrows, eyelashes, etc.Embellishment of clothes and ornaments on the body are drawn last in the entire painting. A golden powder mixed with water is used to draw the ornaments on deities, emperors, etc. In some cases real gold leaf calledwarkis used. Sometimes embellishment with sequins is required. For this purpose grooves are made on the medium with a pointed iron needle and sequins stuck with glue.After the painting has dried up it is covered with butter paper and rubbed with a smooth oval shaped shell piece. The painting surface becomes smooth and acquires a luster.